According to medical statistics, 2 million people in Russia have a history of parasitic invasion. Statistics on the sale of funds for its treatment suggests that in fact at least 22 million people in Russia suffer from parasites. About 80% of this number are children of preschool and primary school age. Medicine knows 342 types of parasites, of which about 70 are found on the territory of our country. The danger of this disease is that it is not always possible to give a child an accurate diagnosis of the existing symptoms.
Types of parasites affecting humans
The causative agents of invasion, for which the person is an intermediate or primary host:
Nematodes or roundworms - pinworms (enterobiosis pathogens), roundworms (ascariasis pathogens), trichinella (trichinosis pathogens), whipworm (trichocephalosis pathogen), they are more often diagnosed in children than other species.
Cestodes, or tapeworms - bovine tapeworm (causative agent of teniarachnosis), pork tapeworm (causative agent of teniasis), dwarf or rat tapeworm (causative agent of hymenolepidosis), wide tapeworm (causative agent of diphyllobothriasis), echinococcus.
Trematodes, or flukes, are feline or Siberian fluke (pathogen of opisthorchiasis), schistosome, hepatic fluke (pathogen of fascioliasis).
The localization of all these parasites in children is not only the intestines, but also the liver, lungs, muscles, heart, brain, gall bladder. In the body, they migrate through blood vessels with blood flow.
How does infection happen and why?
Most often, cases of infection with nematodes (pinworms, roundworms), less often whipworm, are recorded in Russia and Ukraine. Diseases caused by tapeworms and flukes are not typical of this region. From 2 to 5% of recorded cases of invasion by these parasites are due to the consequences of traveling to exotic countries, contact with infected animals, eating insufficiently cooked and cooked meat and fish, as well as in case of gross violation of sanitary rules. A large proportion of diseases in this group is due to invasion by a wide ribbon-tape as a result of eating unboiled river fish.
Pinworms and roundworms enter the body from dirty hands that are not well washed after talking to animals, going to the toilet, before eating, and also after particles of soil from poorly washed vegetables, fruits, and greens enter the digestive system. Contact with a person infected with nematodes is dangerous, using the same household items with him. The eggs of these parasites can enter the body of healthy people with notes and coins, from door handles and seats of public transport.
Even after careful treatment of enterobiasis, the risk of self-infection is not ruled out. Reinvasion occurs after a cured pinworm carrier again transfers their eggs to their mouth after contact with household items, where they fell from his hands after combing the anus.
Due to the peculiarities of their age up to 5-6 years, younger preschoolers cannot independently observe the rules of personal hygiene, but they are extremely active. Kindergartens, games rooms in shopping centers, outdoor playgrounds - places of concentration neg. An additional factor in the easy infection of children with parasites is the increased susceptibility of the child's body due to imperfections in the protective barriers of the digestive system.
The widespread occurrence of this disease in children is due to the untimely and imperfect diagnosis of parasitic infestations.The mild symptoms of infection, their similarity with other diseases, prevent parents in time to establish the real cause of the child’s well-being.
In enterobiosis, female pinworms do not descend into the rectum every day in order to lay eggs. Therefore, scraping for enterobiosis in some cases can be false negative even in the presence of pinworms in the intestine. To detect the disease with minor invasion, a threefold analysis is required: first, with a frequency of one day, and a third time after 2 weeks.
Factors for an increased risk of ascariasis and enterobiosis in children:
A rare change of underwear (that is, it is not changed daily, it is better to do this 2 times a day, it is very important to change panties in the morning),
Unsanitary living conditions, flies and cockroaches in the home where the child is located,
Contact of the child with domestic animals - possible carriers of eggs and larvae on wool,
Lack of habit of washing hands regularly after a walk, before eating, after going to the toilet,
Negative addictions of a child to biting nails, sucking a pencil, toys, household items,
The child has long and dirty nails,
Inadequate hygienic processing of vegetables, fruits, herbs, and the use of such products in food.
Common signs of parasites in the body
Some types of parasites in children for many years may not manifest themselves in any way, noticeable symptoms are detected only with a decrease in immunity. Researchers involved in their study, as early as the last century, put forward the theory that these pathogens are the cause of many pathologies, including cancer.
It is difficult to find a child free from the carriage of viruses, larvae and eggs of parasites, pathogens. They disrupt the life of the child with their toxins, physical damage to tissues and organs, cause serious illness.
Common symptoms of intoxication in adults and children due to parasitic infestation:
Nausea, increased salivation,
A variety of allergies
Excessive appetite, not accompanied by weight gain, or, conversely, its absence,
Pain in the abdomen or in the right hypochondrium of varying intensity,
Inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx (sinusitis, adenoids, sinusitis, polyps in the nose), diseases of the genital organs,
Fragility of nails and hair, as a result of vitamin deficiency and iron deficiency anemia,
Violations of the nervous system (irritability, insomnia or drowsiness, cognitive impairment, memory impairment) due to an increased concentration of toxins,
Symptoms of anemia (decreased hemoglobin, increased eosinophils) recorded in blood tests,
Manifestations of allergies and intoxications, aggravated after vaccinations.
What are the symptoms of pinworms in children
Pinworms are causative agents of enterobiosis, having a small size (no more than 1 cm). Enterobiosis carrier can transfer pinworm eggs to clothes, doorknobs, household items, and toys. The viability of pinworms is quite large. For them, the effects of ultraviolet radiation and boiling are deadly. Disinfectants may not always completely disinfect pinwormed items. The pathway of human infection with enterobiosis is fecal-oral. Pinworm eggs enter the digestive tract from the oral cavity and reach puberty in 2 weeks. After that, the female begins to lay her eggs herself.
A characteristic symptom of enterobiasis is itching in the anus. It appears at night when the child warms up under the covers and his muscles relax. Due to this, the female freely penetrates the anus of the baby, lays up to 5 thousand eggs in the skin folds. The child unconsciously combes irritated skin, while the eggs fall under the nails, on clothes, underwear and bedding, and skin on the hands.
Additional symptoms of enterobiosis in children:
Itching in the anus leads to impaired childhood sleep (restlessness, insomnia, intermittent anxiety sleep),
Weight loss, differences in body weight indicators of the child from age standards,
Fatigue, irritability, anxiety, moodiness, learning disabilities, lack of attention,
Enuresis, more often manifested in girls, occurs due to irritation with pinworms of the urethra,
Vulvovaginitis and other inflammatory diseases of the vagina, provoked by the penetration of pinworms, possible infection and inflammation of the fallopian tubes,
Acute appendicitis, caused by the concentration of pinworms in the cecum,
Presumably - gnashing of teeth in young children at night,
Dyspeptic manifestations - alternating constipation and diarrhea, enterocolitis with a protracted course, nausea, pain in the navel,
A significant decrease in immunity in children due to impaired absorption of nutrients and vitamins, a decrease in hemoglobin levels, and often repeated infectious and viral diseases with a protracted course
Symptoms of intoxication - weakness, frequent dizziness and headaches, nausea, weight loss.
Signs of ascariasis in a child
According to statistics from laboratory tests for the presence of parasitic infections, it can be concluded that about 80% of preschool children have been treated or are currently undergoing treatment for parasitic infestations. Infection of this kind is a very serious problem, since the growing body loses most of the nutrients it needs so much, the internal organs of the child are affected, and it is intoxicated.
With such a dangerous invasion as ascariasis, its pathogens affect almost all organs: the brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver and gall bladder, heart, pancreas. Ascaridosis is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, when eggs from the soil enter the oral cavity and then into the digestive system. The provoking factors are contact with soil and sand, non-compliance with hygiene rules, the use of greens, vegetables and fruits with food particles, flies as carriers of eggs.
Ascaris eggs that enter the oral cavity and then into the small intestine develop in it and become larvae. With blood flow, Ascaris larvae migrate to the liver, lungs, and heart. Ascaridosis manifests itself in children with subfebrile temperature (up to 38 ° C), weakness, cough with an admixture of blood, general malaise, symptoms of obstructive bronchitis, asthma, pleurisy, pneumonia. X-ray examination diagnoses moving pulmonary infiltrates.
At the initial stage of the disease, children are diagnosed with an increase in lymph nodes, an increase in the liver and spleen. A characteristic symptom of ascariasis is an allergic urticaria on the skin of the hands and feet, dermatitis.
In the intestinal phase of ascariasis, starting 3 months after the introduction of the infection, roundworms move into the intestine. This occurs when children swallow sputum from the lungs, which contains a huge number of larvae. Symptoms of parasites in children in the intestines are violations of the digestive system (spasmodic abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, alternating constipation and diarrhea, irritation of the anus skin). Immunity reduced as a result of a long-term current illness cannot resist infections - purulent processes of the skin and mucous membranes, relapses of stomatitis.
The toxic effect of waste products of roundworm negatively affects the nervous system. In children, mental and nervous system disorders appear: sleep disturbances, seizures of the type of epileptic seizures. Symptoms such as a drop in blood pressure, photophobia, and enlarged pupils may appear. Complications of ascariasis are characterized by a severe course. These are peritonitis, acute appendicitis, obstructive jaundice and bowel obstruction, which occur due to the fact that roundworms close the lumen of the intestine and bile ducts.
Signs of other parasitic infestations
Opisthorchiasis (causative agent is feline, or Siberian fluke) - digestive system disorders, hepatitis, enlarged liver, abdominal and right hypochondria pains, skin rashes, allergies, myocardial dystrophy, enlarged lymph nodes, catarrhal syndrome, joint pains, low-grade fever, disturbed blood counts (elevated ESR, eosinophils count decreased hemoglobin).
Trichocephalosis (pathogen - whipworm) - Symptoms in children are minimal, dyspepsia, diarrhea with an admixture of blood, alternating with constipation, bloating, vomiting, vomiting may occur, with massive prolonged invasion, children’s mental retardation is diagnosed.
Difillobotriosis (pathogen - wide tape Diofillobotrium latum), triggered by the use of fish that have not undergone a full heat treatment - manifests itself as intestinal disorders, allergies, anemia with vitamin B deficiency12.
Hymenolepidosis(the causative agent is rat, or dwarf tapeworm) - does not have specific symptoms, it can be manifested by gastrointestinal disorders (pain, heartburn, alternating diarrhea and constipation, nausea, decreased appetite), allergic and vasomotor rhinitis, and fatigue.
Toxocariasis(pathogen - toxocaras transmitted to children from infected cats and dogs) - Allergy manifestations (coughing, suffocation, swelling of the face, fever, rash on the skin), damage to the eyes (keratitis, ophthalmitis, chorieretinitis), enlargement of the liver, lymph nodes, and X-ray images show lung infiltrates.
How to remove parasites in a child?
To eliminate parasites in children, the pharmaceutical industry produces a large number of highly effective antiparasitic drugs. Almost all of them have a toxic effect on the child's body, so they are taken exclusively on the recommendation of an infectious disease specialist, parasitologist. Treatment is carried out according to the results of a diagnosis that determines the type of infection. Despite the fact that there are means of complex action, specific drugs may be required to expel a particular species.
To stop the toxic effects of parasitic waste products in children, manifested in the form of allergic reactions, the doctor prescribes antihistamines. In pediatrics, effective and safe medicines in the form of drops or suspensions (Zodak, Tsetrin, Zirtek, Loratidine) are used for this purpose.
Effective agents for treating infestation of children with nematodes:
Features, analogues and price
Pyrvinium, Helminthox (90-130 rubles), Nemocide, Pirantel-Combantrin - preparations of this group are less toxic for the child's body
Albendazole - Vormil, Nemozol (130-150 rubles), Gelmodol-VM
Mebendazole - Vermox (90-100 rubles), Vermakar, Mebex, Thermox, Vero-Mebendazole, Vormin (20-30 rubles) - drugs that are effective both on adults and their eggs and larvae, are used to treat severe invasion,
It has a minimum of contraindications,
Dekaris (80-100 rub.).
In most cases, with enterobiosis, a second course of therapy is performed to prevent self-infection. The frequency of treatment courses is 2 weeks.
Alternative recipes for the removal of parasites in children (the use of garlic and pumpkin seeds) can serve as an auxiliary or prophylactic. The main treatment for invasion is with medication.
Prevention of parasite infestation
Long-term heat treatment of meat and fish dishes.
Thorough washing of greens, berries, fruits, vegetables.
Fighting insects - carriers of eggs and larvae (flies, cockroaches, mosquitoes).
Preventive treatment for parasites, regularly carried out in pets.
Washing hands with soap after contact with animals, soil, sand, after using the toilet, before eating.
Processing nipples, toys, before giving them to the baby, as well as after falling to the floor, on the ground.
Fighting bad habits: sucking pencils, pens, fingers, the habit of biting nails.
Thorough nail care, timely shortening, keeping them clean.
In case of enterobiosis, the use of tight panties to prevent the spread of pinworms in bed at night.
Ironing children's underwear with a hot iron after washing.
With enterobiosis, a frequent change of underwear (2 times a day), hygienic washing with soap of the anus and the area around it.
3 myths about parasites
Myth One: Absolutely all pets are carriers of infection. Owners of animals do not agree with this statement. They believe that it is their pet who is completely healthy, and he does not need treatment.
Reality: Any animal, even outwardly healthy in appearance, can become a carrier of the disease (cats, dogs, decorative rodents).
Myth two: Preventive treatment of parasitic infections in domestic animals is carried out only before vaccination.
Reality: In order to be completely sure that the pet is completely healthy, you need to carry out such prophylaxis at least 4 times a year, that is, quarterly.
Caution: veterinary drugs against parasites cannot be used to treat a person!
Myth three: To provide cats and dogs with nutrients and to raise the mood of their pet, he needs to be fed raw meat from time to time.
Reality: The nutrients in modern pet foods are balanced and provide all the needs of pets. Raw meat and fish are a risk factor for parasite infection.
Education: The diploma in the specialty "medical business" was obtained at the Volgograd State Medical University. Immediately received a specialist certificate in 2014.
Can a one-year-old baby have worms
A one-year-old child, who is not only crawling, but also starting to walk, is quite capable of contracting worms, even without leaving his home. The fact is that children at this age pull everything in their mouths or strive to taste it.
Even if personal hygiene requirements are maintained at a fairly high level in the house, it cannot be guaranteed that microscopic worm eggs will not be brought into the house by wind, flies, soles of shoes, and stroller wheels, which will then fall onto toys or surfaces (floors, sofas, etc.). .p.), where the baby usually plays.
The baby may also become infected with worms from an older child attending a children's group, from pets who are helminthically infected and / or carry worm eggs on their wool, from poorly washed berries and fruits, from the use of a common towel with which all households wipe their hands that are not thoroughly washed , etc. etc.
A restless curious baby has many ways and ways to get infected with worms, and the task of parents is precisely to possibly block the path of helminth infection and carefully monitor the health of their child.
What is the danger of helminthiasis?
Most helminthiases of those species that are most often found in children parasitize in the intestines. They live and eat in it, as a result of which they multiply and release toxins. Also, parasitic worms mechanically affect the intestinal wall. The consequence of the active life of worms in the body of a child can be:
- Vitamin deficiency and weight loss. These problems arise due to a lack of nutrients and vitamins. As a result, children begin to lag behind in development. Pathological processes in other organs may begin.
- Inflammation in the intestines, colitis, dysbiosis, bleeding. All these unpleasant and serious complications are caused by mechanical damage caused by worms in children in the body.
- The development of inflammatory processes in the appendix, liver, gall bladder. These are organs adjacent to the intestine into which parasites can move.
- Intestinal obstruction. It may be partial or complete, and sometimes there is a risk of rupture of the intestinal wall.
- Intoxication of the body. When worms live and die inside a person, they release aggressive toxins.
- Allergy. Vital products of parasites are considered strong allergens.
- Impaired liver function. For this reason, the child has to follow a diet for many years and additionally consume enzymes.
- Psychosis. Helminths tend to have a negative effect on the patient’s nervous system.
Types of worms affecting the body of a child
There are many types of parasites that can appear in the body of a child. They vary in size, being both small and large, and also manifest themselves in different ways and have a different incubation period, which ranges from 1–1.5 months. In order to prescribe effective drugs that will help cure helminthiases, you need to correctly determine their type. The most common species in children are:
- Tape. This type of worms includes cestodes, dwarf tapeworm, tapeworm, and echinococcus.
- Ringed. Among them are the annelids.
- Round. Their representatives are trichinella, pinworms, whipworms, nematodes, roundworms.
- Prickly-headed. They are represented by scratches.
- Flat. Among them are trematodes and flukes.
Causes and methods of infection
It is possible to become infected with helminthiasis not only in an exotic country or by tasting an unusual dish on the menu. Playing in the sandbox and unwashed hands is the easiest way for worms to enter the child's body. Toddlers tend to touch and study everything without thinking about the purity of the subject. After that, they can easily lick their fingers without washing them first. Worms remain viable for a very long time (from weeks to months), remaining on the surface of various objects.
In addition to dirty hands, the main sources of infection include:
- dirty toys and surfaces
- railing in the entrance
- raw water
- dirty vegetables and fruits,
- soil, earth, sand,
- contact with a sick child,
- insufficiently fried meat
- poorly thermally processed fish or other seafood.
Symptoms of the presence of parasites in children
Usually in children under 1 year of age, any manifestations of the presence of parasites in the body are observed in isolated cases. The first symptoms that signal infection with helminths are recorded already at an older age (about 2-3 years) in children attending kindergarten or other developing organizations.
Helminthiasis in children is represented by a huge variety, and each individual type has its own specific signs. However, there are a number of symptoms that are characteristic of any kind of worms:
- irritability and moodiness for no apparent reason
- troubled sleep
- itching in the anus (we recommend reading: what does itching in the anus in children indicate?),
- increased salivation
- disturbed digestion, accompanied by diarrhea, constipation, nausea and bloating,
- lack of appetite,
- weight loss with good nutrition,
- pallor of the skin.
In adult children, these symptoms may join:
- stomach discomfort
- poor concentration.
A disease when parasites such as pinworms enter the child’s body, called enterobiosis. This type of helminth is one of the most common in young children of preschool age - from 2 to 5 years.They differ in small sizes, which are 5-13 mm, and minimal harm compared to other types of parasites.
Their presence causes the appearance of the following symptoms:
- Severe itching in the anus. Its intensity can reach such a strength that the child will not sleep well, comb the anus, causing irritation and inflammation.
- Urinary incontinence during night sleep. It is observed in girls. This happens if pinworms from the anus pass into the urethra. As a result, the baby begins to develop urethritis, vaginitis or cystitis.
Pinworms are easy to get rid of, and they are not as dangerous as other types of helminthiases (for more details, see article: Treatment of pinworms in children). It is important in time, when the first signs appear, consult a doctor and pass the necessary tests. If pinworms were found in the child, then parents also need treatment. All clothes, towels and other rags should be washed and ironed, and the room should be thoroughly washed, since the eggs of these worms are on all surfaces in the infected house.
Infection with worms in children
The appearance of helminths often causes horror and panic in parents. But, if you start treating them in time, then you can avoid many of the diseases that they cause.
How does the process of infection with parasites occur, and what are the worms:
- roundworms, pinworms, whipworm. Re-infection is characteristic. You can find worm eggs on clothes and in feces. Use of dirty unprocessed foods for cooking, non-observance of hygiene rules,
- Feline, Chinese fluke. When eating seafood, raw, salted and poorly cooked fish,
- hepatic fluke. Swallowing contaminated water, infected fruits and vegetables, contact with contaminated soil, sand,
- pulmonary fluke. Poorly cooked seafood, crab and animal meat,
- wide tape. Through fish, caviar,
- schistosome. You can get infected in water when swimming,
- pork, bull tapeworm. Food of animal origin is poorly processed thermally,
- dwarf tapeworm, echinococcus. Dirty hands, poor hygiene,
- hookworm. Sufficiently unprocessed fruits, vegetables from the garden, non-compliance with hygiene standards,
- Trichinella. Raw or improperly prepared meat of wild animals and cattle,
- filarias. Penetrate with insect bites like mosquitoes, horseflies, flies.
Prevention of helminthic invasion is mandatory in childhood.
Ignorance of the basic rules of hygiene and the baby's communication with peers, games on playgrounds, contact with soil and sand can lead to infection with parasites.
Diagnosis every six months and analysis for worms will allow them to be detected on time and start treatment.
The second most common in children are roundworms of large sizes up to 40 cm, living in the small intestine - roundworms. In addition to the general symptoms of helminthiasis, in the case of roundworms, an infected person initially has an unreasonable cough in the absence of any inflammatory processes in the airways. Its appearance is due to the fact that the larvae of this type of parasite enter the lungs and upper respiratory tract and, through cough, re-enter the stomach.
Other characteristic features include:
- headache and dizziness,
- enlarged lymph nodes,
- intestinal disorders.
In this case, itching in the area of priests with roundworms is absent. The habitat can be not only the intestines, but also any other organ or system of the body.
How to find out if a newborn baby has worms
In young children from 1 day of life, even an experienced qualified specialist at the examination will not be able to immediately identify parasites. To this end, a mandatory laboratory study of the taken defecation materials within the children's clinic is carried out monthly.
What are the common signs of worms in newborns:
- restless sleep
- poor appetite
- sudden weight loss
- a combination of diarrhea and constipation,
- allergic reactions, rashes,
- copious salivation
- vomiting, regurgitation of food debris,
- causeless crying and screaming
- temperature increase up to 37 ° C,
The baby’s health completely depends on the parents, whose responsibilities include the study of his habits, the time spent on sleep and wakefulness, the amount of food consumed per day.
The manifestations and symptoms of worms in children are screaming, crying for no reason in a newborn, refusal to eat, obvious anxiety and indigestion.
Signs and symptoms of worms in children from 1 year to 6 years
How to understand and how to determine that a child has worms is quite simple. For this, it is necessary to observe the daily activities of the baby, age-related changes.
Worms in children under 6 months of age may show symptoms:
- loose stools
- worm eggs can be found in feces,
- salivation increased
- baby is naughty
- allergic cough
- decreased immunity
- weight loss.
Parasites can be recognized at home.
It should be borne in mind that the symptoms coincide in children under 2, 3 years old and the signs of infection with worms that a one-year-old baby shows:
- diarrhea gives way to constipation
- itching and rashes,
- teeth grinding
- swollen lymph nodes
- fast fatiguability,
- disturbed sleep
- stomach ache.
It is much easier to detect unnatural changes in the body in older children.
There is an opportunity to find out and ask about the inconvenience that the baby is experiencing, ask him to indicate the localization of pain or discomfort.
There are characteristic signs of the presence of worms in a child from 4 years old to 6:
- involuntary urination during sleep,
- teeth grinding
- itching in the anus,
- allergic rashes,
- temperature up to 37 ° C - 38 ° C,
- aching pains in the navel and abdomen,
- fatigue and lethargy
- yellow shade of mucous membranes and skin,
The obvious first signs of helminths in the body are, of course, an upset of the intestines and a violation of normal digestion.
The second way to determine the worms in a child is a detected parasite in the feces or redness, burning in children near the anus. This also needs to be carefully monitored. In any case, even the smallest suspicious symptom should alert parents.
What diseases cause parasites in children
If you do not pay attention to the obvious signs of the presence of worms in the children's body and ignore the treatment, the consequences are quite serious for the baby and can lead to death.
Worms can cause:
To avoid the occurrence of parasites, it is recommended to carry out prophylaxis and take appropriate tests, monitor the baby's hygiene and cleanliness in the house, disinfect, ventilate the room and strengthen the protective functions of the body.
Worms in newborns: treatment
Almost all preparations for worms are intended for children over the age of 2 years. The treatment that a newborn baby requires must be gentle. Weak immunity and still poorly developed organs should not suffer from antibiotics and the chemical composition of most drugs.
What worm tablets are better for young children from 1 day of life:
- Fenasal. Assign if a child has a flat, tapeworm, tapeworm for diseases such as teniarinhosis, teniosis, diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepidosis. A child up to a year of daily intake is 0.5 grams, from 2 to 5 years - 1 gram, from 5 to 12 years - 1.5 grams,
- "Piperazine". With ascariasis and enterobiasis in young children from birth.A single dose per day for children up to 1 year old is 0.2 - 0.4 grams, from 2 to 3 years old - 0.3 - 0.6 g, from 4 years old and up to 5 are prescribed for worms - 1 - 1.5 g. Children from 6 years old - 0.75 g,
- Pyrvinium. Age - from 3 months. A single daily intake for enterobiosis for children of 15 mg per kg of weight, the suspension is prescribed for 1 to 2 years of 5 ml, for 3 to 4 years - 7.5 ml, 5-6 years - 10 ml.
All drugs are prescribed exclusively by a pediatrician and after examination and diagnosis of parasites. An independent choice of treatment will not relieve the worms, but only provoke a deterioration in the health of the baby.
Worm tablets for children 1 year of life and up to 2 years
It is worth giving with caution any medicines to children under 2 years of age. Carefully read the instructions and contraindications.
Only after determining the type and class of helminth, does a specialist prescribe a medicine for parasites for children from one year old:
- "Nemocide". It is prescribed for the treatment of helminths in young children from 6 months. Indications: ascariasis, enterobiasis, necatorosis, hookworm, trichocephalosis. Daily intake from 6 months to 2 years of 125 mg, for children from 2 years to 6 years - 250 mg, age - 6 - 12 years - 500 mg. Laxatives are not required
- Helminthox. When worms are recommended for use in children from 6 months. An effective remedy for ascariasis, enterobiosis, hookworm, necatorosis, trichocephalosis. The dosage from 6 months to 2 years is 125 mg, from 2 to 6 years - 250 mg, for children over 6 years old - 500 mg. Laxatives are not prescribed.
In most cases, it is recommended to supplement the treatment with enemas and drugs to restore the intestinal microflora, vitamins to strengthen the immune system.
Treatment of worms in children from 2 years:
- Vermox. From 2 years to 10, a single dose of 25-50 mg is prescribed for mixed helminthiases,
- Mebendazole. For diseases caused by mixed helminthiases, a broad-acting drug is recommended. Assign to a child at 2 years and up to 10 years in a dosage of 25-50 mg once,
- Vormin. Helps treat worms in a child from 2 years of age. With mixed helminthic invasions, multiple nematodes. The daily intake is from 25-50 mg once.
The doctor may prescribe suspensions, if the baby does not want to take pills. In this case, the dosage will be changed. Perhaps the appointment of ointments. Basically, this is a zinc paste for topical topical application.
Worm preparations for children from 3 to 6 years
At an older age, it is much easier to choose effective methods and methods of how to remove worms from a child’s body.
You can give not only medicines, but also herbs for parasites for children:
- Pirantel. Treatment in children is carried out from 3 years old for diseases like ascariasis, hookworm infection, necatorosis and enterobiasis. The daily dose from 3 to 6 years - 1 tablet, from 6 to 12 years - 2 tablets,
- "Biltricid". For the treatment of worms in a child of 4 years. Diseases: schistosomatosis, fascioliasis, paragonimiasis, trematodosis, opisthorchiasis, cestodoses, cysticercosis. The minimum daily dose of 20 mg per kg of weight 2 times,
- "Pumpkin Seeds". An effective herbal preparation. For diseases associated with worms in children 3 to 4 years old, a decoction of 75 g is recommended, from 5 years of 100 g,
- Diphezil. With worms in a child of 2 years and up to 5, the daily intake is up to 3 g of the drug, after 6 years - 3.5 - 4 g.
During the disposal of worms, a diet is recommended, the intake of fruits and vegetables, natural fresh juices, the use of garlic, onions.
After most medications, it is advisable to administer enemas or take a laxative.
Be sure to maintain cleanliness in the house and compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, taking vitamins and immune-regenerating drugs.
What Dr. Komarovsky says
Dr. Komarovsky advises not to dramatize the problem, but do not underestimate it, because worms in children, Komarovsky believes, can have quite serious consequences.
In severe cases, helminthic infestations cause malfunctions of the nervous system.
Also, worms, according to Dr. Komarovsky, can cause skin rashes and allergic reactions.
But the pediatrician considers teeth grinding in a dream grandmother's tales.But if he worries his parents, then it is better to immediately pass the appropriate tests, so that the parents calm down or, if the tests turn out to be positive, immediately contact the pediatrician for treatment recommendations.
What parasites can an infant catch
Helminthiasis can lead to numerous health problems that shorten life by 15-25 years. Many parasites are extremely difficult to detect. They can be anywhere - in the blood, intestines, lungs, heart, brain. Symptoms of helminthic invasion can be confused with acute respiratory viral infections, gastrointestinal diseases and others. The main mistake in such cases is delaying! If you have suspicion of the presence of parasites, then you need to contact a specialist. If we talk about drugs and self-treatment, then from the most common helminths (roundworm, pinworms, tapeworms) this one is suitable antiparasitic complex.
Most often, babies show roundworms and pinworms. In this case, the symptoms in children are usually more pronounced than in adults, so it is easier to detect the disease. But there are cases when, despite infection, no symptoms are observed.
Worms are actively developing, but parents, not even realizing this, do not take any measures.
That is why you can not refuse to regularly take tests for worms (most often this is an analysis of feces and smear, which is taken in the laboratory).
In addition to the above-listed ways of infection with helminths, one cannot exclude such a path as the presence of worms in the mother’s body during the period of gestation, in utero. At the same time, larvae at the stage of migration enter the fetus along with the mother’s blood through the umbilical vein.
Also, invasion sometimes occurs during childbirth, when the baby swallows a part of the liquid containing the larvae in the process of being born. The result is the birth of a child already infected with worms.
Symptoms and signs of worms in a one-year-old child
Helminthic infestations are determined quite simply - using the usual analysis of feces (for greater reliability, it is better to pass it several times) and a smear. Parents can also detect worms by visual inspection of feces in a pot or on a diaper if the worms are already visible to the naked eye.
Careful monitoring of the condition of the baby is the most important task of every mother. It is difficult to determine the presence of parasites in a one-year-old baby, but it is possible by the following signs:
- Decreased appetite
- Increased salivation,
- Sleep Anxiety and Sleep Disorder,
- Moody behavior, tearfulness,
- Poor weight gain
- Pallor of the skin and blue under the eyes,
- Dermatological diseases (seborrhea, dermatitis),
- Allergic reactions
- Decrease in the level of immune defense and related respiratory viral diseases,
- When infected with pinworms - constant itching in the anus, which the child always combes.
It is easiest to identify enterobiosis caused by pinworms. Their females crawl out of the anus at night and lay eggs around it, which causes the baby to itch, and therefore he constantly tries to scratch the itchy place (which is prevented by the diaper if the baby is in it).
Signs of worms in children of 1 year old, more often in girls, sometimes consist in the development of pathological processes of the genitourinary system. From the anal folds, some types of helminths can penetrate the urethra and bladder.
This leads to the development of urethritis, cystitis, which is almost always accompanied by nighttime urinary incontinence, pain during urination and frequent urge to it.
Even if the child has only some of the symptoms listed, contact a pediatrician immediately until the helminthic invasion has become rampant.
No need to be shy, worms are a completely natural phenomenon for young children, and no one will consider you to be bad parents, but if you do not start treatment in a timely manner due to false shame, then you will only harm your child’s health.
Pinworms coming out with feces
Treatment of babies at 12 months
Modern medicine makes it easy to deal with many parasites, but they still need to be discovered. Diagnosis of helminthiasis in one-year-old children is based on the analysis of feces and smear, which is taken directly from the skin around the anus. But here there are problems.
Analysis of feces for the content of parasite eggs does not always give a reliable result the first time. This is due to the fact that helminths, such as pinworms or roundworms, do not lay eggs every day, so that even with a thorough examination under a microscope, they can not be detected. Reliable results can only be obtained by passing daily feces for at least three days.
The treatment of one-year-old children is complicated by the fact that the main medications have age restrictions, so the list of drugs for this age group is extremely small.
For the expulsion of pinworms and roundworms, drugs are intended: levomizole, mebendazole, pyrantel. Of course, only a pediatrician prescribes anthelmintic therapy. He chooses the right drug and its dosage for the baby. Do not forget that the treatment of worms is carried out simultaneously to all family members.
What can be given from tablets
For young children, 3 types of drugs are most often used: pyrantel, nemocide, piperazine.
Pyrantel - It is used for ascariasis and enterobiasis, whipworm infestation and nekator. Dose at the rate of 10 mg / kg body weight. In order to give a pill to a small child, it must be crushed, dissolved in the required amount of liquid and given a drink. The course of therapy is 1 dose. With nekatorosis, the course is extended to 3 days.
Nemocide - indications for the appointment are similar. The course is a single dose for invasion by roundworms or pinworms. Complex mixed infections may require a course extension of up to 3-4 days.
Piperazine - used only for infection with roundworms or pinworms. With other helminthic diseases, the drug is not effective. Take 2 days twice a day. For children of 1 year, the dose is 200 mg. Combined use with nemocide and pyrantel is not allowed.
These parasites in children are worms with a very thin body, the length of which reaches 5 cm. A female whipworm can lay up to 2 thousand eggs at a time. Typically, such helminths are more common in adolescence, and in young children appear much less often.
A distinctive feature of trichocephalosis is the almost complete absence of any signs of helminthic invasion. Possible symptoms are reduced to:
- disturbances in the work of the nervous system (irritability, headaches),
- digestive problems accompanied by diarrhea, nausea or vomiting,
- increase in body temperature.
Suspensions and drops
Pyrantel and nemocide are also available in the form of a suspension, which facilitates taking the medicine for the baby, however, it also has a medicinal effect similar to solid forms of drug release. The suspension itself is a suspension of the smallest solid particles of the drug, immersed in a liquid base. Suspensions of pyrantel and nemocide have the same indications and course duration as the solid form. For children aged 1-2 years, the drug is given in a dose of 2.5 ml (half a scoop).
Piperazine is also available in the form of drops - a 5% solution of the drug. The course of treatment is 1 dose. The dose for a one-year-old child is 3-5 drops. This dosage form is convenient for use. The drug can be mixed with food, which, to the limit, facilitates swallowing of the product by the baby.
Signs of other parasites
Among other types of worms that can occur in children, the following can be distinguished:
- Hymenolepidosis or dwarf rat tapeworm. Specific symptoms are not characteristic of him. You can recognize its presence by nausea, decreased appetite, heartburn, diarrhea and constipation, headache, abdominal pain, excessive salivation, dizziness, fatigue, skin rash, allergic rhinitis and bronchospasm.
- Opisthorchiasis or feline Siberian fluke.These worms in a child cause subfebrile temperature, rashes on the skin, swollen lymph nodes, joint and right hypochondrium pain, pancreatitis, gastritis and other signs of malfunctioning of the digestive tract, constant catarrhal syndrome and more.
How to remove worms from a one-year-old child at home
As a rule, the treatment of helminthiases in 12-month-old children is carried out at home and consists in carefully following the instructions of the pediatrician. Typically, such treatment is limited to one or two doses of the prescribed drug, in some cases, the course of treatment lasts 3-4 days.
In this case, it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition and behavior of the child, as it is extremely rare, but still there are cases of intolerance to the drugs.
Sometimes the pediatrician prescribes additional funds, in particular, sorbents, since with the mass death of helminths, an increased release of toxins from dying parasites is observed, which can cause a deterioration in the general condition of the baby. Reception of sorbents will allow to neutralize the toxic effect on his body.
Treatment of helminthiasis should be accompanied by treatment of all other family members, as well as dehelmentation of domestic animals (it should be carried out twice a year).
Contact with contaminated surface
Worms and their eggs can survive up to two weeks without food.
Most common places where a child can become infected with worms:
- soil in the playground or outdoors containing worms or eggs,
- communication with animals or contact with their excrement infected with worms.
Typical symptoms of helminthiasis in children
The first signs of worms appear 2-4 weeks after infection. Helminthic infestation in children can occur in acute or latent form. If the parasite population is small, then the baby may not feel any discomfort.
The main symptoms of worms in children:
- Abdominal pains of different localization and intensity, manifested by seizures.
- Violations of the stool, diarrhea and constipation.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Reduced or, conversely, brutal appetite.
- Intestinal dysbiosis.
- Fatigue, dizziness.
- Sleep disturbances.
- Pallor of the skin, blue circles under the eyes.
- Girls may develop urinary incontinence.
Dermatitis (rash, redness, itching) is the result of an allergic reaction to the toxins that secrete helminths. Harmful substances also affect the state of the nervous system. Children look tired, become irritable, moody.
An acute infection is accompanied by symptoms of helminths in children - fever, vomiting, diarrhea.
Types of parasites to which the children's body is exposed
About 70 species of parasites that can cause helminthiasis live in Russia. The habitat of most of them makes infection unlikely. Due to the distribution patterns and transmission methods, parasites of the following types are most often present in young children:
- Pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis). Small (about 1 centimeter) round white worms live in the intestines. Life expectancy is about 4 weeks. For breeding, the helminth leaves the intestines, lays eggs near the anus. The disease that this type of worms causes is called enterobiosis. The most common type of parasite in developed countries. The greatest number of children has this particular type of invasion.
- Roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides). Parasites reach a size of 40 centimeters, live in the small intestine. During the life cycle they migrate through the blood vessels, can reach the liver, heart, lungs. Parasites lead to significant damage to these organs.
- Whipheads. A more rare type of helminthiasis, which is difficult to treat, since, living in the intestines, it does not feed on its contents.
- Toxocaras. The main carriers of long roundworm-like worms are cats and dogs.Parasites cause multiple organ damage, including larvae that can settle in the eyes.
- Giardia. Relate to protozoa, live in the intestines (intestinal giardia). Most often affect children up to 3 months.
- Tapeworms - Echinococcus, Lentica. These types of parasites are much less common, therefore, children are infected with them infrequently.
The less common the parasites, the more difficult it is to determine the disease.
Note: when traveling to exotic countries, you need to protect children from infection with parasites that are difficult to identify and cure. Often they cause significant damage to the health of the child.
How to check if your child has worms?
In most cases, it is difficult for parents to associate specific symptoms with helminthiasis or understand why a child suddenly has vomiting or other symptoms for no apparent reason. At the slightest suspicion of the appearance of worms, one should go to specialists and take tests that can easily verify the assumption of helminthic invasion. This will not take much time and effort, but the cause of the baby’s malaise will be clearly clear, and it will be possible to timely treat.
Helminthiasis Prevention in Babies
Prevention of helminthiasis consists, first of all, in strict observance of not only the rules of personal hygiene, but also the cleanliness of all objects that fall into the child’s hands, and then into the mouth (toys, etc.), and prevent him from accessing street shoes, on which eggs of worms can be introduced.
Bed linen, clothes and an individual baby towel should be washed in very hot water, and then ironed at maximum temperature.
All family members must also strictly observe hygiene requirements: wash hands thoroughly after using the toilet, coming from the street, etc.
It is necessary to vacuum the floor and upholstered furniture daily and carry out wet cleaning, wipe the wheels of the stroller with disinfectants.
It is necessary to very thoroughly wash fruits, berries, vegetables that are intended for baby food and do not undergo heat treatment.
All food should be covered so that flies - carriers of worm eggs could not land on them.
As a prophylactic anthelmintic, you can use unroasted pumpkin seeds, ground in flour, with almost no taste or smell - they can be mixed with the baby’s food.
What is the danger of helminths for the children's body
- Decreased immunity. In these children, even after the introduction of the vaccine, insufficiently strong immunity is formed. They often begin to hurt, diseases drag on in duration and occur with complications.
- Frequent allergic reactions. According to allergists, atopic dermatitis in 50% of cases is the result of helminthic invasions.
- Poisoning the body. Helminths, like other living things, feed, multiply and excrete excrement. Vital products of parasites are very toxic to the child's body. First of all, the nervous system suffers from toxins. The child lags behind in development, suffers from a headache, quickly gets tired.
Methods of infection
The child comprehensively explores the world around him, including tastes. He is still poorly versed in the rules of hygiene, open for communication with any animals, including street animals.
Adult parasites, their larvae and eggs, are present in sand, earth, on household items. With careless contact, they enter the child's body and quickly take root there. There are many ways of infection, consider the most frequent and most likely.
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Hello, readers of the site about parasites Noparasites.ru. My name is Alexander Lignum. I am the author of this site. I am 23 years old, I am a 5th year student of the Kemerovo State Medical Institute. Specialization "Parasitologist". More about the author >>
The best stories of our readers
Topic: Parasites are to blame for all the troubles!
From whom: Lyudmila S. ([email protected])
To: Administration Noparasites.ru
Not so long ago, my health condition worsened. She began to feel constant fatigue, headaches, laziness and some kind of endless apathy appeared. Gastrointestinal problems also appeared: bloating, diarrhea, pain and bad breath.
I thought that this was due to hard work and hoped that everything would pass by itself. But every day I was getting worse. Doctors also could not really say anything. It seems like everything is normal, but I somehow feel that my body is not healthy.
I decided to contact a private clinic. Then I was advised, along with general analyzes, to pass an analysis for parasites. So, in one of the tests, I found parasites. According to doctors, it was worms that 90% of people have and almost everyone is infected, to a greater or lesser extent.
I was prescribed a course of antiparasitic drugs. But it did not give me results. A week later, my friend sent me a link to one article where some parasitologist shared real advice on combating parasites. This article literally saved my life. I followed all the tips that were there and in a couple of days I felt much better!
Digestion improved, headaches disappeared, and that vital energy that I so lacked appeared. For reliability, I once again passed the tests and found no parasites!
Who wants to cleanse their body of parasites, and it doesn’t matter what types of these creatures live in you - read this article, I’m sure 100% will help you! Go to the article >>>
Helminth tests in children
How to identify worms in a child? Helminthic infestations in children are difficult to determine by the clinical picture. Symptoms of different helminthiases are similar to each other. Worms are detected using both time-tested and new laboratory diagnostic methods.
- A histological analysis of feces allows you to check for the presence of helminth eggs in feces.
- Microscopic examination of scraping from the anus (helps to recognize enterobiosis).
- Analysis of the contents of the duodenum. In duodenal contents, worms or protozoa can be found.
- General blood test with leukocyte formula. Indirect signs of the presence of worms are an increased level of eosinophils and anemia.
- Serological tests for antibodies to helminth antigens.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
PCR is the most reliable and sensitive diagnostic method for helminthic invasions. For analysis, blood, feces, scrapings are suitable. The study determines the presence of foreign DNA in a biological sample. The effectiveness of the histological coprogram is less than that of PCR and ELISA.
Medical diagnosis is necessary to confirm the diagnosis if the worms were detected visually, or only if suspected helminthic invasion. To find out the cause of the symptoms, you need to take a series of tests, which include:
- Fecal analysis. In it you can find eggs or parts of already ripened worms. The effectiveness of the method is maximum at a time when there are already mature individuals in the intestine, i.e. approximately 3 weeks to a month after infection. Fecal material should be collected in the morning and sent to the laboratory.
- A smear or scraping from the anus. To do this, use a dry cotton swab dipped in glycerin, or an adhesive tape.The analysis reveals the larvae of worms that were deposited on the skin in the anus.
- General blood analysis. In patients with helminthiasis in the blood, an increased number of immune cells, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and a low hemoglobin level can be noted.
- Enzyme immunoassay. It allows you to detect parasites at an early stage with the help of staining enzymes that attract worms, viruses and other foreign bodies.
Additional tests for parasites in a child that can be done in a clinic include:
Helminths living and multiplying in the human body are divided into 3 groups:
- Nematodes, or roundworms - pinworms (enterobiosis pathogens), roundworms (ascariasis pathogens), trichinella (trichinosis pathogens), whipworm (trichocephalosis pathogen), etc. This group of helminths is more common in young children.
- Cestodes, or flat (tapeworm) worms - echinococcus, bovine tapeworm (causative agent of teniarinhosis), rat tapeworm (causative agent of hymenolepidosis), pork tapeworm (causative agent of teniosis).
- Trematodes or flukes - Siberian, or cat fluke (pathogen opisthorchiasis), hepatic fluke (pathogen fasciosis), etc.
The localization of parasites is the digestive tract, liver, brain, lungs, heart, retina, bile ducts and gall bladder, pancreas. Through the body, helminth larvae and adults move with blood flow.
Features of drug treatment
The doctor is obliged to prescribe medications to combat parasites in a child after passing all the required tests and establishing an accurate diagnosis and type of worms (we recommend reading: medicines for treating worms in a child). Among the most common drugs against helminthic invasion should be noted:
- Pyrantel (more in the article: instructions for use "Pyrantel" for children). Reception is allowed from 6 months. Effective against all types of roundworms, but useless in the case of flat parasites.
- Albendazole Appointed from 2-3 years. Dosage is determined at the rate of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight.
- Metronidazole. Suitable for any age, according to which the daily dose is determined.
- Wormin. For children from 2 years against roundworms.
Other drugs may include:
Contact with contaminated surface
Parasites exhibit high viability. They can live outside the body for several months. Touching inseminated objects, the baby receives fragments of parasites first on the body, then they get inside from the hands.
It happens on the street - from the ground, sand, benches and toys. Playing with an infected peer, using common objects becomes the cause of helminthiasis.
Many children like to bite their hands, bite their nails, and already in adulthood, school age poorly comply with hygiene. Coming from the street, they forget to wash their hands or do not wash them thoroughly enough, without soap and if only faster.
Public spaces, large shops and playgrounds pose a serious danger to children. In places where there are a lot of people, you need to not let the child grab his hands for everything.
Principles for the treatment of helminthic infestations
How to get rid of worms in children? The method of treatment depends on the type and degree of helminthic invasion. Usually helminthiases are treated conservatively (without surgical intervention), but surgery is performed to remove echinococcal cysts.
Treatment of worms in children consists of several stages:
- Preparing the body for treatment.
- Actually therapy, taking anthelmintic drugs.
- Restoring the body after an illness and taking medications.It is necessary to normalize the functioning of the nervous system, increase immunity, and get rid of intestinal dysbiosis.
Usually, the treatment period takes about three months. Before starting therapy, you need to accurately determine whether the child has worms. Treatment is prescribed and monitored by a doctor.
The presence of worms in the mother
You can infect a child even during pregnancy, when infection occurs in the womb. Helminth larvae enter the bloodstream to the fetus through the placenta or at birth through the birth canal. Eggs of parasites fall to the child from the surface of the nipples, toys and other items.
Helminthic infestations in children are more common than in adults. Worms in children under one year of age are not as common as in children 1.5 to 3 years old, who are actively exploring the world, tasting various objects and are much more likely to become infected.
Helminthiasis is dangerous at any age. Worms in a one-year-old child are a special case, because the baby’s body is not yet strong, the immune system is weak, and the presence of worms in children can cause frequent acute respiratory diseases, a tendency to allergies, and diseases of internal organs.
What folk remedies can help?
The most popular products that can provide effective treatment for worms in children are:
- Garlic. Successfully destroys roundworm, tapeworms, pinworms and copes with many other varieties of parasites. Suitable for children from 5 years of age and with a healthy stomach. It should be given 1 clove before meals once a day. You can drink it with water or milk. Garlic is also an excellent antiviral agent.
- Pumpkin seeds. They must be eaten on an empty stomach and in raw form. Children usually like this treatment. Otherwise, they can be crushed and mixed with honey if the child is not allergic to honey.
- Sagebrush. Allowed for children from 12 years. To simplify the intake, it should be mixed with a slice of bread and salt.
- Fresh carrot juice. Enough half a glass on an empty stomach once a day for 7-10 days. You can also bite raw carrots.
- Beetroot juice. It is given on an empty stomach. It is advisable to alternate it with carrot, so as not to provoke a violation of the stool.
- Walnuts. A few pieces a day will be enough for the child.
- A pineapple. Fresh, not canned fruit is a tasty and effective remedy.
- Citrus fruits. To their "company" you can add berries and fruits with a sour taste.
Eating food and water infested with parasites
One of the main sources of parasite infection is food and water. In poorly cooked food, helminths remain viable and can cause illness. Of particular danger are products that lie for a long time on open tables, shop windows.
Kids love street food. Sandwiches, pies and hot dogs often contain dangerous particles of parasites and can cause infection.
Drinking water from ponds during bathing, and even poor-quality tap water, can cause helminthiasis.
Varieties of worms that live in the body of a child
In children, more than 200 types of parasites are found. The most common ones include:
- round helminths, including pinworms, nematodes, roundworm, whipworms,
- flatworms, the representative of which is the hepatic trematode,
- tape worms (tapeworm and tapeworm),
- prickly-headed helminths, to which the comb is assigned,
In children, pinworms, as well as roundworms and whipworms, are more often found. The first type of nematode parasitizes at the bottom of the small intestine. Their size varies from 1.1 to 12 mm in females. It is this type of helminth when laying eggs that provokes anal itching in an infected child. Vlasoglav also lives in the intestine, but at the same time tightly sticks to its walls. His main food is blood. The length of the adult whipworm can reach 5 cm.
Roundworms live not only in the intestines.They can migrate throughout the body through the baby’s circulatory system, penetrating the liver, lungs, heart, and oral cavity. The body length of an adult roundworm can reach 30 cm.
Symptoms of worms in children
Signs of worms in children depend on the habitat and life of the worms in the child's body. The most common worms - roundworms in babies, pinworms, tapeworms - live in the intestines, but some of the specific parasites can move from organ to organ. For example, roundworms first enter the stomach, and from it enter the lungs or liver with blood. There they grow for three weeks, then again penetrate the intestines or stomach.
Pinworms often live in the anus, causing severe itching. In girls, they can be in the genitals, causing vulvovaginitis.
Parasites opisthorchis often live in the liver, pancreas. Echinococcus can affect muscles and bones, tapeworms penetrate even into the brain. Also, some types of helminths are found in the respiratory organs, causing a persistent cough.
Through contact with infected individuals
Pets are often carriers of parasites. The infection is spread not only by dogs, but also by cats, rabbits, hamsters and many others. Children love to communicate not only with pets, but, often, with street animals. After a child strokes a dog, he rarely runs home to wash his hands. Helminth particles from the animal remain on its body and can get inside.
Medication for helminthiases in babies
An integrated approach will help to cure any kind of helminthiasis completely, without harm to the body. You can treat worms in a child using certain drugs:
- Anthelmintic drugs. They include antiparasitic medicines that differ in spectrum and principle of action. Assigned depending on the type of invasion. The drugs are toxic, many are contraindicated in young children. What can be given to a child? Piperazine, Pirantel, Albendazole, Levamisole are suitable for the children's body. It will be more convenient for the baby to take the drug in the form of a suspension.
- Sorbents. Bind toxins, accelerate the removal of worms from the body. Only strictly defined doses of sorbents can be taken, otherwise serious digestive disorders can occur.
- Antiallergic drugs. They help relieve symptoms of allergies to the products of helminthic waste.
- Hepatoprotectors. Assign in the recovery period. They help normalize the liver.
- Enzyme preparations. Restore normal digestion.
In the treatment of enterobiasis, the patient is also prescribed enemas. If the baby has a tendency to constipation, the doctor will prescribe him baby laxatives. It is important to ensure regular stool so that parasites and toxins are eliminated from the body. You can’t take any medications uncontrollably, since there is a possibility of side effects.
How to understand that a child has worms?
According to the location of the worms in children, they may appear The following signs of the presence of worms in a child:
- Constipation. Large worms can block the intestinal lumen, causing stool disruption. Constipation may last more than 2 days.
- Diarrhea. Some parasites secrete a special substance that stimulates the body to secrete undigested pieces of food and a large amount of water.
- Irritable colon syndrome. Helminths can cause inflammation in the intestines. This causes a violation of the absorption of nutrients and irregular stool.
- Flatulence. Some types of helminths provoke fermentation processes in the small intestine, this causes excessive gas formation. If you do not get rid of the worms on time, flatulence can last more than one month.
- Soreness in joints, muscles. This occurs when parasites penetrate the joint or into the thickness of muscle tissue and destroy it.
- Allergy. Worm products can activate special cells in the body that are responsible for the occurrence of allergic reactions.
- Worms can cause skin diseases. Acne, hives, papillomas and diathesis appear. Sometimes infection with worms leads to increased fragility of hair and nails.
- Anemia. Some types of worms are able to adhere to the intestinal walls and receive from them not only nutrients, but also blood. Because of this, the child develops anemia, which is diagnosed using a clinical blood test.
- Change in body weight. As a rule, as a result of infection with worms, body weight decreases sharply, as worms absorb more nutrients that enter the body through food. The presence of helminth infections often causes loss of appetite due to toxins entering the bloodstream. But often a child has an increase in body weight - this is a protective reaction to the spread of worms.
- Disorders of the nervous system. The child has capricious and irritable behavior. Schoolchildren and adolescents may develop depression against the background of helminthiasis.
- Sleep disturbances. When a child wakes up every night, this may indicate an infection process. At night, some types of worms leave the body through the anus, which is accompanied by severe itching, which prevents the baby from sleeping.
- Jaundice. More common in tapeworm infections.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome. The child is constantly weak and quickly tired due to a lack of nutrients in the body. There are problems with memory, emotional stress and drowsiness develop.
- Immunity disorders. Due to helminthiasis in a child, diseases of viral origin are much more likely to occur, an allergic reaction to conventional products appears. Dysbiosis, colitis often develops in the intestines, rashes, diathesis and herpes on the face.
- Problems with the respiratory system. Occur when worm larvae attack the lungs. With worms in children, a cough appears, and body temperature rises. Bronchial asthma is an extremely dangerous complication of the invasion of worms.
Through an insect bite
During insect bites, parasites often transmit to humans. Many flies spread dangerous helminths, especially in exotic countries. Flies and mosquitoes, not being carriers, can spread parts of the parasites, so babies need to be protected from insects.
The danger of ascariasis
- Intestinal obstruction. Roundworms can coagulate, close the intestinal lumen and cause obstructive intestinal obstruction. This complication can only be treated surgically.
- Appendicitis. It occurs when adult Ascaris creeps into the appendix.
- Peritonitis. This is inflammation of the peritoneum. Terrible complication with high mortality. It occurs when the walls of the intestine rupture and the contents of the intestines enter the abdominal cavity.
- Cholecystitis. It occurs when creeping into the lumen of the gallbladder. Complication threatens with blockage of the bile ducts and stagnation of bile.
Common Worms in Children
- Pinworms cause itching around the anus, painful urination.
- Roundworm. With ascariasis, diarrhea is observed, worms in the feces of the child are visible with the naked eye. Fever and dry cough are detected within 4 to 16 days after contact with the eggs of the roundworm.
- Hookworm. The child develops a cough, wheezing appears. In case of severe infection, anemia, chronic fatigue develops.
- Tapeworms. Penetrate into the body with contaminated food and water. Swallowed worms move from the intestines of the child, forming cysts in the tissues and organs of the body.
Traditional medicine from worms
Traditional medicine is not advisable to use for the treatment of helminthiases in children. They do not kill worms and do not help to remove them from the body.Folk remedies can be used only in combination with drug treatment.
How to remove worms in a child by folk methods? There are several common recipes:
- Pumpkin seed. Contains components that interfere with the normal functioning of worms, remove toxins. The peeled seeds (100 g) are pushed and poured with olive oil (100 ml). Tincture is given to the child before meals (for three hours) for three days. The treatment is repeated after 2 days. Pumpkin seeds can be boiled in milk (15 seeds in 1 cup). The tool is given to drink the baby before lunch.
- Garlic mixture. A few cloves of garlic (2-3) should be wiped on a fine grater, mixed with a small amount of water until smooth. For a small child, garlic gruel is mixed with a spoonful of milk or orange juice, given a drink before bedtime.
- Onions in oil. 100 grams of onions are chopped, covered with one teaspoon of salt, pour 50 ml of sunflower or olive oil. The mixture is given to the baby five days in a row before going to bed.
Beetroot-carrot juice and tincture of echinacea will help the child increase immunity. Restore the nervous system - chamomile tea. Chamomile is also used for enemas for enterobiasis.
Folk remedies are contraindicated in children with peptic ulcer, gastritis, pancreatitis, a tendency to allergies. And, of course, before starting to test “grandmother’s recipes” on a child, first consult a pediatrician and parasitologist, otherwise the outcome of such therapy may be the most unpredictable.
How to identify worms in a child?
Abdominal pain, lethargy, and diarrhea can be symptoms of other diseases. To make sure that they are signs of helminthiasis, it is necessary to perform some tests for worms in children:
1. A blood test for worms in children.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for worms is prescribed. As a result of the study, specific antibodies and antigens are detected that indicate the presence of worms in the body. This analysis will show the type of worms available, their number, and the ability to reproduce.
In order to diagnose worms, a general blood test is performed, which allows you to identify anemia or signs of inflammation in the body.
2. The exact result is achieved using a histological coprogram.
It consists in a microscopic examination of feces. Thanks to this study, it is possible to clearly identify parts of the body of the worm, their eggs. As a result, helminthiasis is diagnosed, as well as the type of worms.
3. Radiography and other diagnostic measures.
When there is a suspicion of the presence of worms in the lungs, an x-ray examination is prescribed. In addition, a sputum test is performed. To identify parasites in the liver, brain or kidneys, computed tomography or ultrasound is performed.
The mechanism of entry and development of worms in the child's body
Due to the high prevalence of parasites in nature, protecting yourself from infection can be difficult even for an adult who follows all the rules of hygiene. In children, an undeveloped immune system leads to the rapid multiplication of pathogens when ingested.
Helminths enter the body from the outside, begin their life cycle. Lay eggs, from which larvae appear that migrate throughout the body. They enter any organs and destroy them.
In children, enterobiosis, which is caused by pinworms, is most often recorded. When infected with these worms, repeated self-infection constantly occurs, since laid eggs in the anus cause itching. The child combs this place and again swallows new parasites from dirty hands.
The main provocateurs of helminthiasis in childhood are:
- Unsanitary living conditions - toilets that are poorly cleaned, dirty tables, proximity to cesspools, and garbage cans.
- The habit of sucking hands, objects, biting nails.
- The use of unwashed vegetables and fruits. They are dangerous even from their own garden or cottage.
- Lack of hygiene skills. Rare hand washing, change of bed linen, underpants. Long dirty nails - a convenient place for the accumulation of parasites.
- Lack of hygiene knowledge. Children need to be explained that dirty hands are dangerous. Helminths parasitize on a person, taking food from him.
In children's groups, infection is often widespread due to late diagnosis and becomes epidemic. This is due to the fact that parents are poorly watching babies and often do not notice signs of parasite infection.
Important: Almost 85% of the total number of helminthiases is recorded in children under 14 years of age.
Complications of Enterobiosis
- Intestinal disorders (frequent stools, inflammatory diseases of the intestinal mucosa).
- Vulvitis and vulvovaginitis in girls.
- Eczema and dermatitis around the anus.
- Peritonitis. Occurs when pinworms damage the intestinal wall and exit into the abdominal cavity.
How to get rid of worms in children?
Self-medication against worms is unacceptable for children, since they are quite toxic. Also remember that during the invasion of various types of worms, individual treatment courses are required, which are built in accordance with the life cycle of the worm. When calculating the dose, the specialist must take into account the age and body weight of the patient.
Your doctor may prescribe a worm medicine that is available in the form of syrup for babies or in pill form for older children.
- Mebendazole. Used to treat various helminth infections in children,
- Pirantel. Another safe means for deworming in children,
- Zentel assigned to children from two years old,
- Zentel suspension from worms for children. This is a syrup from worms for children under two years old,
- Fed - candles from worms for children. The active substance of the drug is albendazole. It is contraindicated in children under two years of age. Effective against adult worms, larvae and eggs.
Deworming tablets for children usually kill the worms without harming the host, in this case the child. The treatment period is usually short and lasts no more than a few days. Sometimes a single dose of Mebendazole is enough to rid the baby of the worms.
But many drugs are ineffective against larvae and eggs of worms. In addition, there is a rather large threat of repeated self-infection with pinworms in young children. Therefore, after 2 to 3 weeks, the treatment course should be repeated.
If the child has worms, in parallel with etiotropic drugs, a specialist can recommend a choleretic if it is suspected that the worms live in the gallbladder. Laxatives are often prescribed to quickly eliminate helminths and sorbents in order to absorb toxins. Antihistamines can reduce allergy and improve the health of a small patient.
The treatment of helminthiasis in infants is very difficult. Almost all worm preparations are not used for children under two years of age, because they are very toxic and have many side effects. Damage to the body caused by the consumption of such drugs can be significant even at the slightest dose. Therefore, self-medication of helminthiasis in children of the year is completely not allowed.
If there is any suspicion of worms in an infant, it is necessary to consult a specialist who will determine the degree of infection and develop a treatment regimen that is valid in this case. In some situations, the doctor may even suggest delaying treatment for a short time so that the child grows up.
When infected with parasites, a person loses most of the useful substances obtained with food. Helminths use everything from the body:
They take away nutrients, releasing toxins that poison the body and cause multiple allergic reactions. Moving along the bloodstream, they destroy red blood cells.Parasites become the cause of many pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, cause diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lungs.
Usually the first signs of helminthiasis appear after 2-6 weeks. The acute phase is observed up to 4 months, later on comes the chronic.
Reference: the most frequent invasion is enterobiosis. Most children of different ages hurt them.
Supplements and homeopathy from worms
The Internet is full of advertisements for biologically active additives (BAA) and homeopathic remedies, which, according to the manufacturers, will completely remove the worms. Reviews about the funds are extremely positive.
Why can not I use dietary supplements to treat worms in a child? Biologically active food additives help to normalize metabolism, increase the body's resistance, improve the functioning of internal organs, but they do not eliminate parasites. They can be used only in combination with traditional drugs.
Homeopathic medicines consist of a complex of natural extracts. They also do not adversely affect worms. But they can increase immunity, restore metabolism. In many countries, homeopathic medicines are banned today because of their inefficiency.
Folk remedies for worms for children
Along with medicines, treatment of worms in children with folk remedies will help alleviate the discomfort due to worms in the body. A natural remedy for worms will not necessarily save the child from worms, but it will help in the treatment and prevention of infection.
Consider folk remedies:
- Garlic is a natural anthelmintic for children. It is known that this remedy is effective against parasitic worms. Raw garlic contains amino acids, sulfur, which will help kill parasites and rid the body of them. Eating three cloves of raw garlic on an empty stomach will help in complex deworming.
- Papaya - the best remedy for health. Immature papaya has an enzyme called papain, which acts as an anthelmintic agent to kill worms in the intestines. In addition, papaya seeds are used to expel worms from the stomach. Grind the papaya seeds and stir a tablespoon of the mass in warm milk or water. Ask your child to drink a drink in the morning, three days in a row. Mix one tablespoon of raw papaya and a tablespoon of honey in warm milk or water. Drinking this drink on an empty stomach helps drive intestinal worms away.
- According to research, pumpkin seeds help in expelling intestinal parasites. Seeds contain cucurbititacin, which paralyzes pests and makes their survival difficult in the body. Offer your child a spoonful of pumpkin seeds with honey. Boil a spoonful of peeled and chopped pumpkin seeds in three glasses of water. Let the drink brew for half an hour. Suggest to the child when the liquid has cooled.
- Chinese bitter gourd. Although it is slightly acidic in taste, it is very effective as a remedy against worms living in the intestines. Mix a cup of bitter gourd juice with water and honey and give the child twice a day.
- Carrot contains vitamin A, which enhances immunity and allows the body to fight against any intestinal worms, while they have not yet completely populated the body. Eating carrots on an empty stomach will help neutralize persistent parasites in the body, and also prevent re-infection.
- Turmeric It is a natural antiseptic and helps in the elimination of all types of intestinal worms. It is necessary to give a glass of warm water mixed with one spoon of turmeric to the child from worms once a day for five days.
- Coconut possesses strong antiparasitic properties, which makes it effective in the treatment of worms. You can use fruit or oil to kill worms. Have your child eat a tablespoon of grated coconut daily with breakfast. Keep using this home remedy for a week.Concentrated coconut oil contains medium chain triglycerides to help remove worms from the baby’s body. If the baby takes four to six teaspoons of coconut oil every morning for a week, this will increase immunity and prevent the repetition of infection by worms.
- Clove destroys existing intestinal worms and their eggs, and also prevents future infections. Add a teaspoon of cloves to a glass of hot water and let it brew for 20 minutes. You need to drink this water three times a week to avoid infection.
- Onion juice helps in the fight against roundworms. Take the onion and chop it well, drain the juice from the onion mixture. Use it in the morning on an empty stomach.
- Indian lilac possesses antiparasitic properties and can destroy various intestinal worms. Mix the powdered leaves in warm milk and honey. Offer your child twice a week.
When infected with pinworms
The main signs of pinworm infection are:
- Severe itching in the anus. This occurs during the brood, when the female leaves the body to lay eggs.
- Stool disorders with alternating diarrhea and constipation.
- Girls have enuresis, inflammatory diseases of the vulva and vagina.
- Violations of the blood - a decrease in hemoglobin, anemia.
- Pain in the stomach and intestines.
- Immunity decline, tendency to fast and frequent infection.
- Weight loss, growth retardation.
- Allergic reactions, the development of atopic dermatitis.
- The prolonged presence of parasites in the body leads to intoxication. Its symptoms develop - headaches, fatigue, frequent fatigue.
Video: Dr. Komarovsky on helminthiasis at an early age
Dr. Komarovsky is considered one of the most successful pediatricians, a doctor of the highest category and a person whose work experience has been conducted since 1983. One of the frequently discussed topics in the framework of his telecasts is the question of helminth infections at an early age. Thanks to the following video you will find useful and important information of Dr. Komarovsky:
A careful and detailed study of this article, as well as the use of tools and techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of helminth infections, will allow parents to prevent the appearance of such diseases in their child.
Prevention of worms in children
Children playing in mud, sand, grass and other open places are likely to become infected with worms. Although worms can be eliminated by deworming, it is best to prevent infection as much as possible.
Worm Prevention Means the following actions:
- Do not give raw water to a child from sources or wells. Before use, this water must be filtered and boiled.
- Hands after contact with the ground must be washed thoroughly with soap.
- It is also worth washing the vegetables, herbs, fruits and berries that the child and the rest of the family eat.
- It is important to carefully heat the meat, fish and poultry.
- Do not offer your child dried, salted, or raw foods that have not been cooked.
- It is necessary to take a shower after swimming in the ponds. Do not allow pets to lick the baby’s hands or face, because their tongue may contain worm eggs.
- After each contact with animals, wash your hands well.
These precautions do not exclude the possibility of helminth infection, but they minimize it.
Roundworms parasitize in the intestines of the child, so many signs are associated with digestive disorders - defecation disorders, nausea, vomiting.
When the larvae move through the body, multiple lesions of different organs appear. Observed:
- temperature rise
- swollen lymph nodes
- dry cough with a splash of blood,
- enlarged spleen and liver,
- a characteristic feature - rashes on the hands and feet, allergic dermatitis,
- appendicitis with the accumulation of larvae in the blind process.
In children, there are also a variety of disorders of the nervous system - drowsiness, lethargy, nervousness, sometimes cramps and seizures.
Prevention of helminthiases in children
Prevention of the appearance of helminthiasis in children includes simple measures:
- Hygiene. Parents should ensure that the child regularly soap their hands, take a bath or shower, do not bite their nails, and do not pick up toys in their mouths.
- Sufficient heat treatment of meat and fish.
- Regular delivery of scrapings for enterobiosis (this procedure is carried out in kindergarten).
- Healthy sleep, adherence to the daily routine.
- A balanced diet.
- The intake of vitamins.
Drug prophylaxis should be carried out if there are cases of infection in a kindergarten or school, one of the family members or a pet has caught an infection. For prevention, you can give the child from worms once to take "Albendazole", "Pirantel", "Levamisole". Then the parents will not have the question: “The worms of the child! What to do?".
Symptoms of helminths in children are easily confused with manifestations of food poisoning, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. How to find out if the child has worms, the doctor will tell. You can treat children from worms after making an accurate diagnosis under the strict supervision of a specialist. Caring parents should understand that the health of young children is completely in their hands.
Symptoms of Enterobiosis
Recall that enterobiosis is called pinworm infection. This is one of the types of helminthiasis, the most widespread among all ages. Enterobiosis can be recognized by the following signs:
- Burning and itching in the anus. At the site of scratching, there are injuries of the mucous membranes.
- Signs of an allergy are dermatitis, conjunctivitis.
- Weight loss and growth retardation.
- Unstable stool, other signs of dyspepsia.
- Kids often suffer from various types of infectious diseases.
There is a decrease in cognitive abilities, mental instability.
Other parasitic infestations
The presence of parasites of any kind in a child has a number of common features. This is the development of allergic reactions and general signs of intoxication. Children get tired quickly, cannot concentrate on any business, including games. This is due to the loss of nutrients, vitamins, due to poisoning of the body by vital products and the bodies of dead parasites.
Characteristic symptoms of various types of infestations in children:
- Opisthorchiasis. Pathogens infect by eating fish that are not thermally processed. Digestive disorders are present, the liver and pancreas are affected.
- Toxocariasis. It is accompanied by a fever, eosonophilia, swollen lymph nodes. The liver, spleen, eyes, heart suffer.
- Trichocephalosis. Causes whipworm infestation. Often has no symptoms, is not diagnosed for a long time. In severe cases, diarrhea with blood is observed.
With a long course, children begin to noticeably lag behind in development, often get sick and weak.
Types of worms dangerous to humans
Parasites that can settle in the human body are divided into several groups:
- Flat (cestodes). These include pork tapeworm, wide ribbon, tapeworm, echinococcus.
- Round (nematodes) - pinworms, roundworms, whipworms, trichinella.
- Flukes (trematodes) - cat and liver fluke, schistosome.
Worms are able to settle in any organ - in the intestines, liver, muscles, heart, lungs. You can cope with a parasitic infection only by knowing the symptoms and treatment features of each type of helminthiasis.
What is the danger of helminthiasis?
Prolonged infection with parasites can cause serious damage to the body. The presence of helminths in the intestine complicates the passage of food masses and can lead to obstruction. With accumulation in the appendix, appendicitis develops.
Enterobiosis is often accompanied by urticaria, lesions of the genital mucosa, and urinary incontinence.
With opisthorchiasis, the main blow falls on the liver and pancreas, as a result of which pancreatitis, cholecystitis are possible.
All types of helminths provoke weakening of the body in children, which occurs due to intoxication. Anemia often develops. Parasites worsen the quality of life, cause other diseases and damage to various organs.
How a child can get helminths
Despite the synthesis of the latest anthelmintic drugs, the number of diagnosed cases of parasitic pathology is only increasing. Doctors attribute this to the deterioration of the environmental situation - the constant discharge of uncontaminated water, as well as waste products of pigs and cattle, into rivers, ponds, and lakes. Having bathed in such a reservoir or simply by walking along its shore, a child can become infected with helminths. Doctors distinguish several ways by which parasite worms penetrate the child’s body.
How to diagnose an infection in a child
Parents should constantly monitor the health of the child of any age. Identification of infection with parasites is possible by feces, rashes on the skin, combing of the anus (with pinworms). If there are alarming signs, you should contact a pediatrician, infectious disease specialist or immunologist.
- studies of secretions - feces on eggs, vomit, sputum, scraping from the anus, coprogram,
- serological - IFA, RIF, others,
- blood for eosinophilia, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, immunoglobulin E,
- PCR study
- tissue biopsy of damaged organs with severe damage,
- allergic skin tests.
Ultrasound, X-ray, CT or MRI, endoscopic examinations help to check the condition of organs.
If infection with rare parasites is suspected, children are referred to a parasitologist and additional studies are carried out based on the type of possible helminth.
This pathway is characterized by the penetration of eggs and helminth larvae through the oral cavity. Infection occurs after eating food or water. Children regale themselves with unwashed berries, fruits, vegetables and herbs. Moreover, it is often not enough to rinse the products under running water. Worm eggs are attached to them with a very sticky and durable substance that makes them difficult to remove from the surface.
Advice: “Pork and bovine tapeworms are especially dangerous for fragile children's organisms. They firmly attach to the walls of the intestines and secrete a huge number of eggs. "In the warmer months, it is unacceptable to eat unroasted or medium-roasted meat, as pigs and cattle are often carriers of parasite worms."
Raw fish, especially river fish, can become a source of helminth infections in children. It must be given to the child only after heat treatment. Worm larvae are often found even in fish:
Epidemiologists recommend purchasing such foods only in specialized stores that provide a certificate of quality at the request of customers.
To relieve the child of helminths, antiparasitic agents are used depending on the identified type of worms. Refuse to take such drugs should not be, as they provide the destruction of parasites and the release of the child from the disease.
In addition to specific drugs, a whole group of other means is used that contribute to the restoration of the body.
Despite all the measures to prevent infection with parasitic worms, pathology can rapidly spread in close groups - kindergartens and elementary school classes. Children at this age often neglect the rules of personal hygiene by exchanging toys, gadgets, books.A small child likes to taste all objects, which often causes the penetration of roundworm and pinworms into the intestines. Bad habits lead to the same result:
- nibbling nails
- finger sucking.
But most often, domestic and stray animals become a source of infection with parasitic worms, as a magnet that attracts all babies. As a rule, having stroked a cat or a dog, the child will not even think about washing his hands. With them he sends sweets or chips to his mouth, touches toys. It is not surprising that after a couple of weeks the baby has the first symptoms of helminthiasis. But not only animal hair becomes the cause of infection. The feces of cats and dogs contain many larvae. Therefore, just by playing with peers in the sandbox, children bring home helminth eggs under their nails or along with toys.
For the prevention of helminthiases, the baby should be explained the need to wash fruits before eating
The choice of drugs of this group is carried out according to the results of bacanalysis. The medicine should effectively remove parasites at all stages of life - adults, larvae and eggs. Most drugs are effective against various pathogens.
Used drugs for children:
- Pirantel. Effective with enterobiosis and ascariasis. Used for children from a very young age, available in the form of tablets and suspensions.
- Albendazole Apply with different types of parasites. It has low bioavailability and is not absorbed into the tissue.
- Mebendazole (Vermox). Helps to remove roundworm and pinworms, the most common types of parasites.
- Dekaris. Do not use up to 3 years.
All drugs are prescribed in a short course, often at one time. The dose is selected according to the body weight of the child.
Note: treatment with anthelmintic drugs is usually prescribed for the entire environment of a sick child.
Varieties of helminthiases
All types of existing helminths can be conditionally divided into 3 large groups, depending on pathogens:
- Roundworms (nematodes). This group is the most voluminous and most common among children of different ages. They cause helminthiases in children, such as ascariasis, trichinosis, enterobiasis, trichocephalosis.
- Cestodes (tapeworms). This group includes dwarf, bovine, pork tapeworm, wide tape, echinococcus.
- Trematodes. They cause diseases such as fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis. The localization of the presented parasites can be both the lumen of the small and large intestines, and other tissues of the child's body (heart, brain, bile ducts, liver, lungs, muscle tissue).
Spread of worms
The diseases that provoke the lower worms are called helminthiases. No one is immune from them, often the infected themselves are to blame for the appearance of worms. The greatest influence on the degree of their prevalence is exerted by the climate. They are most comfortable in hot tropical countries. The number of parasites also depends on the socio-economic level: in underdeveloped regions with a low level of hygiene and medicine, especially many people suffer from helminth infections.
It is generally accepted that helminthiasis is a disease characteristic of low social strata living in unsanitary conditions, with frequent contact with the ground or animals carrying invasions. However, statistics refute this assertion: in prosperous European countries, the examination finds worms in a third of patients.
In our country, 2 million infections are diagnosed annually, and the figure of 20 million is based on the turnover of anthelmintic. 80% of them are children. Helminths are viable, prolific, one female lays 200 thousand eggs a day.
The cause of the disease is the infection of the body with roundworms - toxocaras. Adult parasites grow to 35 - 40 cm.Egg development occurs in the ground. The human body is both an intermediate and the main host for the parasite.
In the first version, the eggs of the worms, invading the body, become larvae, and with the flow of blood are carried through the organs, giving rise to a larval form of the disease. The second option involves the parasitization of toxocara in the intestine. The carriers of the disease can be pets.
Enterosorbents help remove toxins from the body; they also eliminate allergens. The best for children are Polysorb, Smecta, Enterodes.
Note that with severe damage to the heart, joints and concomitant allergies, glucocorticosteroids are also used.
Traditional invasion treatment
The serious consequences of helminthiasis make you responsibly approach the treatment of the disease by contacting a specialist - parasitologist or pediatrician. Medicinal healing consists of 3 stages.
The preparatory stage is the appointment of sorbents and antihistamines to cleanse the baby's body from toxic substances that accumulated as a result of the parasite's life cycle.
Anthelmintic therapy consists in the selection of drugs, depending on age, type of pathogens, stage of the disease. Usually a one-time administration of a drug in the form of a tablet or suspension is prescribed. After 2 weeks, the course is repeated.
Anthelmintic drugs are very toxic, which is why when they are prescribed, precautions should be taken as much as possible so as not to harm the health of the child. Of paramount importance is the moderation of the dosage. Self-medication is not recommended, the medicine should be prescribed by a doctor, who sometimes can prescribe a combined medication. It is recommended that you carefully read the contraindications for anthelmintic.
Piperazin, which has a fairly narrow range of action, is considered a proven and low-toxic drug: it acts exclusively on nematodes, causing paralysis of adult worms without affecting eggs and larvae. Helminths leaving with feces do not emit toxins. The drug does not cope with a large number of parasites, has side effects.
"Pirantel" is allowed to appoint babies after six months. He is considered the best in the treatment of infestations. Assign to children under 3 years of age once with a repeat after 2-3 weeks. Side effects are similar to the previous medicine.
"Vermox" can be used from 2 years old, it acts against a large number and varieties of worms, but there are also more side effects, they are much more serious. Dekaris (levamisole), which has a wide spectrum of effects, is recommended for use from 3 years.
A cleansing scheme is carried out after the use of anthelmintic drugs, when the parasites die, leaving the body with feces. At this moment, there is a huge surge of toxic substances in the baby's body. For cleaning, enemas are prescribed, taking absorbers and choleretic drugs. After completing the course of treatment, it is necessary to take blood and feces again. In the presence of complications, the baby is registered for 3 years.
Popular ways to combat parasites
Choosing alternative methods for removing parasites in children, you need to remember that they kill helminths, which means they are not completely safe.
A good remedy for any parasites is garlic. Such infusion is prepared for children. 2 cloves are squeezed onto a glass of warmed milk. Insist half an hour, filter. Drink a glass a day, take 1/3 of a meal before meals.
To expel parasites, the child is given linseed oil. It should be drunk on a teaspoon in the morning and evening before eating.
From pinworms, an enema with soda helps. For 250 milliliters of water, take ½ teaspoon of soda. Do 2-3 times a day.
Before using all the tools you need the advice of a pediatrician.
From a young age, a child needs to be accustomed to cleanliness and hygiene.Hands should be washed more often: after returning from the street, playing with animals, visiting the toilet, before eating.
Parents need to carefully monitor the child and his health. Regularly trim nails, change underwear, exclude food on the street, monitor the health of pets.
Prevention includes the formation of the right behavior skills in the street and in public places - do not take your hands in your mouth, do not eat in dubious places.
Even with the most caring parents, children can become infected with parasites. Therefore, you should not miss the recommended professional examinations and tests. Helminths can be detected at an early stage, not allowing serious damage to the body.
With a great risk of infection, prophylactic anthelmintic drugs are possible. You can not engage in self-treatment of children, a visit to the doctor is a prerequisite in getting rid of parasites.
Diagnosis of worms in children is carried out in different ways - depending on what kind of worms the child is infected, the habitat, egg location, toxins found in the body will differ.
For the diagnosis can be assigned:
- blood test - shows anemia, hemoglobin and eosinophils,
- analysis for parasites - in 99% of cases it helps to detect helminthiasis, and in most cases it is possible to accurately determine the type (biomaterial for the study is blood from a vein),
- examination of feces - there may not be eggs in the feces, even if there is infection, to make sure there are worms, you should conduct this diagnosis 3 times, which takes time,
- a smear is especially effective for pinworm infection, since their eggs are found precisely on the outside of the anus,
- analysis of feces for dysbiosis,
- with suspected infection of internal organs, and not just the gastrointestinal tract - CT, X-ray, ultrasound.
Diagnosis allows you to accurately identify the type of parasite and prescribe a specific treatment. The doctor prescribes drugs, diet, additional supportive procedures, gives recommendations on care and hygiene.
In some cases, parents pay special attention to helminthiasis and are permanently anxious about the infection of their child. This leads to regular "preventive" courses of serious anthelmintic drugs that do not bring the baby any benefits. If the child does not lose weight, feels good, eats well, has a healthy complexion, and does not have itching in the anus, most likely he is healthy. You want to make sure of this - it is better to take tests than take an unnecessary course.
There are many modern medications that can effectively cope with any parasites. The choice of the appropriate remedy should be carried out by the attending physician. It is important to consider the general condition of the baby, his age, the presence of allergies or impaired functioning of internal organs. The mechanism of action of antiparasitic drugs has significant differences. Some remedies are effective against adults, while others have a wider spectrum of action. In some cases, a repeat of treatment is required.
Given the high degree of toxicity of drugs and the likelihood of side effects, it is required to be very responsible for observing the dosages recommended by the doctor.
Along with anthelmintic agents, antihistamines are often prescribed. The safest of them are Cetrin, Zirtek, Zodak. For children over 2 years of age, they can be used in the form of drops and suspensions.
Effective drugs included in the course of anthelmintic therapy are:
The complex also includes enterosorbents intended for excretion of the waste products of parasites, as well as vitamins of group C and B.
To make an appointment
The clinic offers the services of an experienced gastroenterologist, candidate or doctor of medical sciences, who will make a preliminary diagnosis, prescribe only the necessary studies according to the results of the examination, and write out a treatment plan. Having our own laboratory allows us to quickly receive tests, and the lack of queues and appointment by appointment - as soon as possible to prescribe treatment. To make an appointment, select the doctor you like and fill out the form on the website, use the general registration form, the callback order function or just call our contact center.
Helminthic invasion drugs
There is a large selection of drugs for the treatment of helminthiasis. The medicine for worms for children is Vormil, Pirantel, Vermox, Albendazole, Mebendazole, Levamisole and many others. Treatment with these agents is usually carried out in cycles with a two-week break in order to immediately relieve the small patient of parasites in case of reinfection. But how exactly the treatment will be carried out and what medications will be used for this should only be in the competence of the doctor!